What is the Microbiome?
Meet Akkermansia Muciniphila
The best example of an important gut bacteria that not many people have ever heard of is Akkermansia muciniphila. It is not commercially available as a probiotic, but there are ways in which a person can increase their own supply of A. muciniphila through diet and supplementation. First, let’s take a look at A. muciniphila and why it is so exciting.
I have written about A. muciniphila before. It plays a critical role in the health of the mucin layer that protects the intestinal lining and maintains proper structure of the intestinal lining. That is why it is given its strain name muciniphila – the Latin suffix phila means love. So, muciniphila literally translates as “love of mucin.” A. muciniphila works with the cells that line the intestines to produce the mucin that goes a long way in protecting the gut lining from damage. Not surprisingly, higher levels of Akkermansia muciniphila are associated with improved intestinal barrier function, reduced intestinal permeability (leaky gut), and improved overall digestive and absorptive function.
All of the effects on the mucin layer by A. muciniphila are exciting, but what is really making researchers (and drug companies) excited are its effects on diabetes and obesity. As the levels of A. muciniphila goes down in the human microbiome, the rates of obesity, diabetes, inflammation, and metabolic disorders goes up. And, as the levels of A. muciniphila goes up in the human microbiome, the rates of obesity, diabetes, inflammation, and metabolic disorders go down. The assumption is that these disorders are associated with altered gut barrier function due to reduced mucin protection, which leads to the absorption of many gut-derived toxins that trigger a cascade of different systems that promote chronic inflammation and insulin resistance.
Animal studies have shown A. muciniphila to prevent diet-induced weight gain and there is now human evidence to support the same effect. In the July 1, 2019 online edition of the prestigious journal Nature Medicine, a pilot randomized trial of A muciniphila administration among individuals with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance showed quite convincingly that A. muciniphila holds much promise in perhaps tiding the now worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Thirty-two subjects with pre-diabetes and evidence of the metabolic syndrome (abdominal obesity, elevated blood lipids, high blood pressure, etc.) were randomized to getting either a placebo, or live or heat-killed A. muciniphila. The active treatment groups taking A. muciniphila took around 10 billion bacteria (either dead or alive) daily for 3 months. The primary purpose of the study was to evaluate safety. A muciniphila passed that test with flying colors. It also displayed effects noted on multiple markers of metabolism and overall health. Compared with placebo, insulin sensitivity increased while total cholesterol and some markers of inflammation and liver function improved. There was also a significant decrease in the white blood cell (WBC) count in those who got the bacteria. The thought is the strengthening of the gut barrier led to a reduced absorption of gut-derived toxins that could trigger an increase in white blood cell levels.
Here is the interesting part that may be disruptive to many readers of the study – the heat-killed or dead bacteria outperformed the live bacteria. I have been stressing this effect for certain probiotics for years, but mainly to deaf ears. The marketplace is consumed with colony forming units over clinical data. That is a mistake in helping consumers get real results with probiotics and compounds designed to impact the gut microbiome.
Enhancing the Growth of A. muciniphila in the Human Microbiome
- muciniphila is not expected to be commercially available as a probiotic until 2021, but I don’t think that is a big deal. As I have written in the past, we are becoming obsessed with the microorganisms and not focusing enough on creating the right intestinal environment to grow our own microbiome version of the Garden of Eden. Focusing on creating the right “soil” to grow A. muciniphila and other beneficial probiotics is in my opinion a more rational approach to establishing the optimum microbiome.
There are a few things that have been shown to be effective in promoting the growth of A. muciniphila, most notably a FODMAP diet, prebiotics, fish oils, and berberine:
FODMAPs is an acronym for:
- Fermentable – foods that are quicken broken down (fermented) by bacteria in the large intestine
- Oligosaccharides – “oligo” means “few” and “saccharide” means sugar. These molecules are made up of individual sugars joined together in a chain. Beans are a common source of oligosaccharides.
- Disaccharides – “di” means two sugar, so a disaccharide is composed of two sugar molecules bonded together. Sucrose is a disaccharide.
- Monosaccharides – “mono” means single, so a monosaccharide is a single sugar molecule. Fructose is a monosaccharide.
- And Polyols – these are sugar alcohols often used as sweeteners. Some examples are xylitol, maltitol, and erythritol
Clearly, not all FODMAPs are health promoting. Here is a list of some common foods and ingredients that are high in health promoting FODMAPs:
- Vegetables: artichokes, asparagus, broccoli, beetroot, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, garlic, fennel, leaks, mushrooms, okra, onions, peas, shallots.
- Fruit: apples, apricots, blackberries, boysenberries, cherries, dates, figs, pears, peaches, watermelon.
- Legumes: beans, chickpeas, lentils, red kidney beans, baked beans, soybeans.
- Non-gluten grains: oats, amaranth, buckwheat, rice (brown, white, wild), millet, quinoa, and sorghum
Prebiotic fermentable dietary fibers such as inulin, various oligosaccharides (fructo-, malto-, and xylo-), pectin, tapioca fiber, acacia gum and resistant starch. I recommend taking a total of 3 to 5 grams daily of one or more of these fibers.
The omega-3 fatty acids in fish oils exert profound effects on the microbiome including an ability to increase levels of A. muciniphila. Fish oils providing higher levels of DHA to EPA exerts a more profound effect on the microbiome and greater anti-inflammatory effects, especially in the gut. The ideal ratio appears to be DHA 4: EPA 2: DPA 1. Interestingly, this ratio is very close to what is seen in wild salmon species. I recommend a minimum of 600 mg of omega-3 fatty acids daily.
Berberine is an alkaloid found in many plants, but most notably in goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and barberry (Berberis vulgaris). Berberine exerts significant beneficial effects on digestive health and the microbiome including increasing the levels of A. muciniphila. This effects partially explains its positive results in clinical trials in improving blood sugar control in type 2 diabetes, lowering blood lipid levels better than statins, and improving liver function. Take 500 mg two to three times daily if you are dealing with any of these metabolic disorders.